Last frost date virginia 2023. The Home Depot...

What are the 2023 Frost Dates?A frost date is the average da

VIRGINIA — The gardening season is winding down in much of the United States with the arrival of meteorological fall and the first official day of fall on Thursday, but the date to keep in mind ...Illinois Frost Dates and Growing Season Dr. Jim Angel, State Climatologist. Frost is the formation of thin ice crystals on the ground or other surfaces in the form of scales, needles, feathers, or fans. If a frost period is severe enough to end the growing season or delay its beginning, it is referred to as a "killing frost".You have a small 20% chance of getting 32° by October 19. There is a 50% chance of being hit by a 32° frost starting around October 27. You have a 80% chance of seeing 32° by November 5. Said another way, you have a 1 in 5 chance at making it to that day without a 32° night.Actual last and first killing frost dates will vary due to local conditions and yearly temperature fluctua- tions. Planting and harvest periods are represented as a 10-day range. You may wish to favor earlier or later planting dates within the given range based on local data or experience.Fall 2023 Forecast; Winter Forecast 2023; Christmas Forecast; Hurricane Forecast; Weather History; Gardening Gardening sub-navigation. Planting Dates Chart; Plant Growing Guides; Robin's Garden Blog; Pests & Diseases; Vegetable Gardening; Flower Gardening; Monthly Garden To-Do; ... 2023 First and Last Frost Dates for Places in Tennessee. Alcoa ...A frost date is the average date of the last light freeze in spring or the first light freeze in fall. The classification of freeze temperatures is based on their effect on plants: Light freeze: 29° to 32°F (-1.7° to 0°C)—tender plants are killed. Moderate freeze: 25° to 28°F (-3.9° to -2.2°C)—widely destructive to most vegetation.A frost date is the average date of the last light freeze in spring or the first light freeze in fall. The classification of freeze temperatures is based on their effect on plants: Light freeze: 29° to 32°F (-1.7° to 0°C)—tender plants are killed. Moderate freeze: 25° to 28°F (-3.9° to -2.2°C)—widely destructive to most vegetation.A frost date is the average date of the last light freeze in spring or the first light freeze in fall. The classification of freeze temperatures is based on their effect on plants: Light freeze: 29° to 32°F (-1.7° to 0°C)—tender plants are killed. Moderate freeze: 25° to 28°F (-3.9° to -2.2°C)—widely destructive to most vegetation. A frost date is the average date of the last light freeze in spring or the first light freeze in fall. The classification of freeze temperatures is based on their effect on plants: Light freeze: 29° to 32°F (-1.7° to 0°C)—tender plants are killed. Moderate freeze: 25° to 28°F (-3.9° to -2.2°C)—widely destructive to most vegetation.As your growing season comes to an end, the nightly temperatures for Newport News, Virginia start to go down, and therefore every day that goes by increases the chance that you'll get frost. Your risk of frost really begins around November 6, and by November 29 you're almost certain to have received at least one frost event.Fall 2023 Forecast; Winter Forecast 2023; Christmas Forecast; Hurricane Forecast; Weather History; Gardening Gardening sub-navigation. Planting Dates Chart; Plant Growing Guides; Robin's Garden Blog; Pests & Diseases; Vegetable Gardening; Flower Gardening; Monthly Garden To-Do ... 2023 First and Last Frost Dates for Places in Quebec. Acton Vale ...A frost date is the average date of the last light freeze in spring or the first light freeze in fall. The classification of freeze temperatures is based on their effect on plants: Light freeze: 29° to 32°F (-1.7° to 0°C)—tender plants are killed. Moderate freeze: 25° to 28°F (-3.9° to -2.2°C)—widely destructive to most vegetation.A frost date is the average date of the last light freeze in spring or the first light freeze in fall. The classification of freeze temperatures is based on their effect on plants: Light freeze: 29° to 32°F (-1.7° to 0°C)—tender plants are killed. Moderate freeze: 25° to 28°F (-3.9° to -2.2°C)—widely destructive to most vegetation.An Interactive Map of Average Last Frost Dates in Tennessee and a list of locations in Tennessee with Average Last Frost Dates. Plantmaps.com. ... North Carolina Last Frost Map; Virginia Last Frost Map; Related Maps and Pages. ... 2023 plantmaps.com ...Oct. 11 - Oct. 20. Woodstock. Oct. 11 - Oct. 20. Yorkville. Oct. 11 - Oct. 20. Zion. Oct. 21 - Oct. 31. An Interactive Map of Average First Frost Dates in Illinois and a list of locations in Illinois with Average First Frost Dates.A frost date is the average date of the last light freeze in spring or the first light freeze in fall. The classification of freeze temperatures is based on their effect on plants: Light freeze: 29° to 32°F (-1.7° to 0°C)—tender plants are killed. Moderate freeze: 25° to 28°F (-3.9° to -2.2°C)—widely destructive to most vegetation.A frost date is the average date of the last light freeze in spring or the first light freeze in fall. The classification of freeze temperatures is based on their effect on plants: Light freeze: 29° to 32°F (-1.7° to 0°C)—tender plants are killed. Moderate freeze: 25° to 28°F (-3.9° to -2.2°C)—widely destructive to most vegetation.A frost date is the average date of the last light freeze in spring or the first light freeze in fall. The classification of freeze temperatures is based on their effect on plants: Light freeze: 29° to 32°F (-1.7° to 0°C)—tender plants are killed. Moderate freeze: 25° to 28°F (-3.9° to -2.2°C)—widely destructive to most vegetation.The range for the final freeze of the season has been from early March all the way through mid-April. The last freeze on average comes in late March. That being said, we haven't been at freezing ...A frost date is the average date of the last light freeze in spring or the first light freeze in fall. The classification of freeze temperatures is based on their effect on plants: Light freeze: 29° to 32°F (-1.7° to 0°C)—tender plants are killed. Moderate freeze: 25° to 28°F (-3.9° to -2.2°C)—widely destructive to most vegetation.Average annual frost potential is calculated by adding the number of days with minimum temperature below a given threshold (potential frost days) over a specified period (1976 to 2005) and dividing by the number of years in that period (30 years in this case). Similarly, average monthly frost potential is calculated by adding monthly frost ...Each winter, on average, your risk of frost is from. Share. October 6 through May 4. Almost certainly, however, you will receive frost from October 20 through April 23. You are almost guaranteed that you will not get frost from May 15 through September 22. Your frost-free growing season is around 155 days. Detailed station data* follows:DULUTH HARBOR STN, MN. 610'. May 22. Oct 5. 135 days. Last and first frost dates are 30% probability. Calculated using 1991-2020 Climate Normals from NOAA.A frost date is the average date of the last light freeze in spring or the first light freeze in fall. The classification of freeze temperatures is based on their effect on plants: Light freeze: 29° to 32°F (-1.7° to 0°C)—tender plants are killed. Moderate freeze: 25° to 28°F (-3.9° to -2.2°C)—widely destructive to most vegetation. Fall 2023 Forecast; Winter Forecast 2023; Christmas Forecast; Hurricane Forecast; Weather History; Gardening Gardening sub-navigation. Planting Dates Chart; Plant Growing Guides; Robin's Garden Blog; Pests & Diseases; Vegetable Gardening; Flower Gardening; Monthly Garden To-Do ... 2023 First and Last Frost Dates for Places in New Mexico. Agua ...A frost date is the average date of the last light freeze in spring or the first light freeze in fall. The classification of freeze temperatures is based on their effect on plants: Light freeze: 29° to 32°F (-1.7° to 0°C)—tender plants are killed. Moderate freeze: 25° to 28°F (-3.9° to -2.2°C)—widely destructive to most vegetation.About Frost Maps. Plantmaps maintains Frost data and maps for many regions on the earth. We've created Average First Frost Dates, Average Last Frost Dates and Average Number of days with Frost maps for most US States and Candian Provinces. Plantmaps also created maps for many countries around the world that are in latitudes where frost occurs.These include favorites like tropical hibiscus, mandevilla, coleus, gomphrena, portulaca, vinca and most veggies like peppers, cucumbers, squash, and eggplant. These plants thrive in the long, warm days of later spring. AVERAGE LAST FROST DATES FOR HAMPTON ROADS: • Virginia Beach & Norfolk: April 1. • Hampton & Chesapeake: April 10.Fall 2023 Forecast; Winter Forecast 2023; Christmas Forecast; Hurricane Forecast; Weather History; Gardening Gardening sub-navigation. Planting Dates Chart; Plant Growing Guides; Robin's Garden Blog; Pests & Diseases; Vegetable Gardening; Flower Gardening; ... 2023 First and Last Frost Dates for Places in Florida. Altamonte Springs, FL; Apopka ...Find the city nearest to you in the list below to estimate the first date of frost in fall, and the last date of frost in the spring for your region.A frost date is the average date of the last light freeze in spring or the first light freeze in fall. The classification of freeze temperatures is based on their effect on plants: Light freeze: 29° to 32°F (-1.7° to 0°C)—tender plants are killed. Moderate freeze: 25° to 28°F (-3.9° to -2.2°C)—widely destructive to most vegetation. 2023 First and Last Frost Dates for Places in Virginia. Abingdon, VA. Alexandria, VA. Annandale, VA. Aquia Harbour, VA. Arlington, Arlington County, VA. Baileys Crossroads, VA. Blacksburg, Montgomery County, VA. Bon Air, Chesterfield County, VA.Fall 2023 Forecast; Winter Forecast 2023; Christmas Forecast; Hurricane Forecast; ... Also, the frost dates are based on a 30% probability, meaning that there is a 30% chance of a frost occurring after the given spring frost date or before the fall frost date. (In other words, ... Last year my husband was one day off, and i was a week off. ...A frost date is the average date of the last light freeze in spring or the first light freeze in fall. The classification of freeze temperatures is based on their effect on plants: Light freeze: 29° to 32°F (-1.7° to 0°C)—tender plants are killed. Moderate freeze: 25° to 28°F (-3.9° to -2.2°C)—widely destructive to most vegetation.A frost date is the average date of the last light freeze in spring or the first light freeze in fall. The classification of freeze temperatures is based on their effect on plants: Light freeze: 29° to 32°F (-1.7° to 0°C)—tender plants are killed. Moderate freeze: 25° to 28°F (-3.9° to -2.2°C)—widely destructive to most vegetation. A frost date is the average date of the last light freeze in spring or the first light freeze in fall. The classification of freeze temperatures is based on their effect on plants: Light freeze: 29° to 32°F (-1.7° to 0°C)—tender …Leaflet | ©Zipdatamaps ©OpenStreetMap Contributors First Frost Dates were calculated using daily climate data from the period between 1991-2020. List of Average First Frost Dates for Locations in Virginia An Interactive Map of Average First Frost Dates in Virginia and a list of locations in Virginia with Average First Frost DatesFall 2023 Forecast; Winter Forecast 2023; Christmas Forecast; Hurricane Forecast; Weather History; Gardening Gardening sub-navigation. Planting Dates Chart; Plant Growing Guides; Robin's Garden Blog; Pests & Diseases; Vegetable Gardening; Flower Gardening; Monthly Garden To-Do ... 2023 First and Last Frost Dates for Places in Vermont. Albany ...Here are two examples to help you determine your probable last frost and first freeze dates. Example 1 (Last Frost). In the Spring 32° row, if you have "Apr 15" under the 50% column, that means you have a 50% chance of seeing frost on or before April 15th. Example 2 (First Freeze).In other words, April 19 has a lower probability of a freeze and would be a "safer" planting date. You would still have to monitor your local weather forecast. This data is derived from the 1981–2010 U.S. Climate Normals from NOAA. Why is the last frost date so important to gardeners?A frost date is the average date of the last light freeze in spring or the first light freeze in fall. The classification of freeze temperatures is based on their effect on plants: Light freeze: 29° to 32°F (-1.7° to 0°C)—tender plants are killed. Moderate freeze: 25° to 28°F (-3.9° to -2.2°C)—widely destructive to most vegetation.Here are two examples to help you determine your probable last frost and first freeze dates. Example 1 (Last Frost). In the Spring 32° row, if you have "Apr 15" under the 50% column, that means you have a 50% chance of seeing frost on or before April 15th. Example 2 (First Freeze).List of Average Last Frost Dates for Locations in Minnesota. Location. Average Last Frost Dates. Albert Lea. May 11 - May 20. Andover. May 11 - May 20. Anoka. May 11 - May 20.Fall 2023 Forecast; Winter Forecast 2023; Christmas Forecast; Hurricane Forecast; Weather History; Gardening Gardening sub-navigation. Planting Dates Chart; Plant Growing Guides; Robin's Garden Blog; Pests & Diseases; Vegetable Gardening; Flower Gardening; Monthly Garden To-Do ... 2023 First and Last Frost Dates for Places in Maryland. Aberdeen ...2023 First and Last Frost Dates for Places in New HampshireEach winter, on average, your risk of frost is from. Share. October 21 through April 18. Almost certainly, however, you will receive frost from November 3 through April 5. You are almost guaranteed that you will not get frost from May 1 through October 6. Your frost-free growing season is around 186 days. Detailed station data* follows:Our last frost date the past few years has been earlier than Memorial Day, but you can't rely on it, so the cold frame works well. Anthony Haj says: April 16, 2019 at 7:59 pm. Rule of thumb, you don't plant any annuals (including vegetables) till after Memorial Day, and traditionally that was May 30th. The Federal government moved the ...Fall 2023 Forecast; Winter Forecast 2023; Christmas Forecast; Hurricane Forecast; Weather History; Gardening Gardening sub-navigation. Planting Dates Chart; Plant Growing Guides; Robin's Garden Blog; Pests & Diseases; Vegetable Gardening; Flower Gardening; Monthly Garden To-Do ... 2023 First and Last Frost Dates for Places in Pennsylvania ...A frost date is the average date of the last light freeze in spring or the first light freeze in fall. The classification of freeze temperatures is based on their effect on plants: Light freeze: 29° to 32°F (-1.7° to 0°C)—tender plants are killed. Moderate freeze: 25° to 28°F (-3.9° to -2.2°C)—widely destructive to most vegetation.A frost date is the average date of the last light freeze in spring or the first light freeze in fall. The classification of freeze temperatures is based on their effect on plants: Light freeze: 29° to 32°F (-1.7° to 0°C)—tender plants are killed. Moderate freeze: 25° to 28°F (-3.9° to -2.2°C)—widely destructive to most vegetation.The dates depending on your location's altitude, latitude and urbanisation, with dates ranging from end of March to mid-May. While you can certainly search up the average last frost date, which is generally a ten day window, they are only an average and not a definitive. If you are worried about a frost after planting, you can use a fleece to ...The average depth of the frost line in Iowa is 58 inches. In the northern part of the state, the frost line can be up to 70 inches deep, while in the southern part the line may be less than 40 inches deep.Fall 2023 Forecast; Winter Forecast 2023; Christmas Forecast; Hurricane Forecast; Weather History; Gardening Gardening sub-navigation. Planting Dates Chart; Plant Growing Guides; Robin's Garden Blog; Pests & Diseases; Vegetable Gardening; Flower Gardening; Monthly Garden To-Do ... 2023 First and Last Frost Dates for Places in South Dakota ...GRANTS PASS, OR. 931'. Apr 19. Oct 19. 182 days. Last and first frost dates are 30% probability. Calculated using 1991-2020 Climate Normals from NOAA.The first frost date is the earliest date in the year that frost is expected to occur, while the last frost date is the latest date that frost is expected. These dates can vary greatly depending on the location and climate, with some areas experiencing frost as early as September and as late as May. In the UK, the average first frost date is ...Apr 11. Apr 8. Apr 6. Apr 3. Mar 31. Mar 27. Mar 23. Now that you know your frost dates, use our Garden Planting Calendar for Chesapeake, Virginia to know when to sow and transplant your various vegetable plants!There is a 50% chance of being hit by a 32° frost starting around October 23. You have a 80% chance of seeing 32° by November 3. Said another way, you have a 1 in 5 chance at making it to that day without a 32° night.How many frost free days are in Virginia? Each winter, on average, your risk of frost is from October 21 through April 18. Almost certainly, however, you will receive frost from November 3 through April 5. You are almost guaranteed that you will not get frost from May 1 through October 6. Your frost-free growing season is around 186 days.Average annual frost potential is calculated by adding the number of days with minimum temperature below a given threshold (potential frost days) over a specified period (1976 to 2005) and dividing by the number of years in that period (30 years in this case). Similarly, average monthly frost potential is calculated by adding monthly frost ...Click the dots to see the average date on which the chance of freezing temperatures drops below 50 percent across the United States, based on the U.S. Climate Normals from 1991-2020. (Launch the map in its own window.)Places where that date occurs near the official start of spring are colored white. Places where the last freezing date occurs before the start of spring on average are in the ...3/28. 11/10. Sumter. 3/28. 11/10. *Based on statistics there is a 10% chance that frost will occur before or after these dates. Watch your local weather for more accurate dates. South Carolina on average has approximately 220 days between the last and first frost. Using the planting schedules below will help you get the most out of your garden.Your results. Each winter, on average, your risk of frost is from. Share. October 31 through April 7. Almost certainly, however, you will receive frost from November 17 through March 29. You are almost guaranteed that you will not get frost from April 16 through October 13. Your frost-free growing season is around 207 days.©2023 Yankee Publishing, Inc., An Employee-Owned Company 1121 Main Street | P.O. Box 520 | Dublin, NH 03444. Custom programming and server maintenance by Reinvented Inc.Reinvented Inc.Here are two examples to help you determine your probable last frost and first freeze dates. Example 1 (Last Frost). In the Spring 32° row, if you have "Apr 15" under the 50% column, that means you have a 50% chance of seeing frost on or before April 15th. Example 2 (First Freeze).Fall 2023 Forecast; Winter Forecast 2023; Christmas Forecast; Hurricane Forecast; Weather History; Gardening Gardening sub-navigation. Planting Dates Chart; Plant Growing Guides; Robin's Garden Blog; Pests & Diseases; Vegetable Gardening; Flower Gardening; Monthly Garden To-Do ... 2023 First and Last Frost Dates for Places in Massachusetts ...You have a small 20% chance of getting 32° by October 12. There is a 50% chance of being hit by a 32° frost starting around October 22. You have a 80% chance of seeing 32° by November 1. Said another way, you have a 1 in 5 chance at making it to that day without a 32° night.Someone who wants to take care of a pygmy date palm tree should avoid watering it too much, not over prune it and use fertilizers that develop the right soil environment. In addition, it is necessary to ensure that it has the right amount o...A frost date is the average date of the last light freeze in spring or the first light freeze in fall. The classification of freeze temperatures is based on their effect on plants: Light freeze: 29° to 32°F (-1.7° to 0°C)—tender plants are killed. Moderate freeze: 25° to 28°F (-3.9° to -2.2°C)—widely destructive to most vegetation.Most planting and seed sowing instructions are based on the average last frost date, which is defined as "the last day in the spring that you might have a killing frost". When making your plant selections, it is wise to consult more experienced gardening friends and neighbors for advice regarding possible local micro-climates or unusual conditions.Apr 16. Apr 13. Apr 11. Apr 9. Apr 7. Apr 4. Apr 2. Mar 29. Now that you know your frost dates, use our Garden Planting Calendar for Alexandria, Virginia to know when to sow and transplant your various vegetable plants!Average Date of First Frost (fall) October 15. Lowest Expected Low. 0°F. Highest Expected Low. 5°F. This means that on a really cold year, the coldest it will get is 0°F . On most years you should be prepared to experience lows near 5°F . Below is a list of planting guides for Zone 7a.A frost date is the average date of the last light freeze in spring or the first light freeze in fall. The classification of freeze temperatures is based on their effect on plants: Light freeze: 29° to 32°F (-1.7° to 0°C)—tender plants are killed. Moderate freeze: 25° to 28°F (-3.9° to -2.2°C)—widely destructive to most vegetation.A frost date is the average date of the last light freeze in spring or the first light freeze in fall. The classification of freeze temperatures is based on their effect on plants: Light freeze: 29° to 32°F (-1.7° to 0°C)—tender plants are killed. Moderate freeze: 25° to 28°F (-3.9° to -2.2°C)—widely destructive to most vegetation.A frost date is the average date of the last light freeze in spring or the first light freeze in fall. The classification of freeze temperatures is based on their effect on plants: Light freeze: 29° to 32°F (-1.7° to 0°C)—tender plants are killed. Moderate freeze: 25° to 28°F (-3.9° to -2.2°C)—widely destructive to most vegetation.Calculating Chilling Hours: Method 1: Chilling hours were calculated by counting the number of hours between 32 and 45 degrees F, from October 1st through February 28th/29th.: Method 2: Chilling hours were calculated by counting the number of hours at or below 45 degrees F, from October 1st through February 28th/29th.: Historical Date of First and Last Frost and Chilling Hour Data©2023 Yankee Publishing, Inc., An Employee-Owned Company 1121 Main Street | P.O. Box 520 | Dublin, NH 03444. Custom programming and server maintenance by Reinvented Inc.Reinvented Inc.This handout from Virginia Cooperative Extension covers how to save and start seeds, and includes a list of how long you can expect various types of vegetable seeds to remain viable. In Albany County, the last average frost date is May 2, and the first average fall frost is October 3. The chart below shows dates various popular garden ...The Importance of Frost Dates. March 17, 2023 RainPoint. Knowing your local frost dates is crucial to planning your gardening and farming activities. The last frost date marks the end of the frost season, while the first frost date marks the beginning of the frost season. By knowing these dates, you can make informed decisions about when to ...For our area, the typical date of the last frost is April 13-22, and for a hard freeze is April 5-10. I reported dates as a range because there are numerous weather data stations around central Illinois. Each station has a slightly different median date of the last freeze, since each location has slightly different conditions, which is why the ...Canadian Frost Dates. Frost dates are arranged by region and include the first frost date of the season and the final frost date of the season. This simply means a period of time where you can safely set your plants out in your garden ensuring them with optimal growing temperatures during both day and night. ... Last Frost First Frost; Corner ...Here are two examples to help you determine your probable last frost and first freeze dates. Example 1 (Last Frost). In the Spring 32° row, if you have "Apr 15" under the 50% column, that means you have a 50% chance of seeing frost on or before April 15th. Example 2 (First Freeze).Your results. Each winter, on average, your risk of frost is from. Share. October 31 through April 7. Almost certainly, however, you will receive frost from November 17 through March 29. You are almost guaranteed that you will not get frost from April 16 through October 13. Your frost-free growing season is around 207 days.A frost date is the average date of the last light freeze in spring or the first light freeze in fall. The classification of freeze temperatures is based on their effect on plants: Light freeze: 29° to 32°F (-1.7° to 0°C)—tender plants are killed. Moderate freeze: 25° to 28°F (-3.9° to -2.2°C)—widely destructive to most vegetation.When visiting Virginia, most people think of checking out the historic buildings and sites in Washington, D.C. However, Virginia’s small towns are some of the most charming areas in the state.The Home DepotEach winter, on average, your risk of frost is from. Share. October 15 through April 23. Almost certainly, however, you will receive frost from November 1 through April 7. You are almost guaranteed that you will not get frost from May 10 through September 28. Your frost-free growing season is around 175 days. Detailed station data* follows:Average Date of First Frost (fall) October 15. Lowest Expected Low. -15°F. Highest Expected Low. -10°F. This means that on a really cold year, the coldest it will get is -15°F . On most years you should be prepared to experience lows near -10°F . Below is a list of planting guides for Zone 5b.A frost date is the average date of the last light freeze in spring or the first light freeze in fall. The classification of freeze temperatures is based on their effect on plants: Light freeze: 29° to 32°F (-1.7° to 0°C)—tender plants are killed. Moderate freeze: 25° to 28°F (-3.9° to -2.2°C)—widely destructive to most vegetation.©2023 Yankee Publishing, Inc., An Employee-Owned Company 1121 Main Street | P.O. Box 520 | Dublin, NH 03444. Custom programming and server maintenance by Reinvented Inc. . Mar 25, 2022 · The date of the average last freeze for mosOur frost date calculator will tell you pre ©2023 Yankee Publishing, Inc., An Employee-Owned Company 1121 Main Street | P.O. Box 520 | Dublin, NH 03444. Custom programming and server maintenance by Reinvented Inc.Reinvented Inc.General Overview of Local Spring Frost/Freeze Information: The mid-April through early-May time frame typically features the final occurrence of freezing temperatures and/or frost of the spring season within our 30-county coverage area of south central Nebraska and north central Kansas. Based on 30-year averages, the date of the AVERAGE last spring freeze (32°-or-colder) ranges from around ... A frost date is the average date of the last light freeze in sp Here are two examples to help you determine your probable last frost and first freeze dates. Example 1 (Last Frost). In the Spring 32° row, if you have "Apr 15" under the 50% column, that means you have a 50% chance of seeing frost on or before April 15th. Example 2 (First Freeze). Jun. 1 - Jun. 10. Zone 12. Jun. 11 - Jun. 20. Zone 13. ...

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